HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted infections - care, support and prevention - AIDS action  

HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted infections - care, support and prevention - AIDS action

  HIV / AIDS and sexually transmitted infections
  care, support and prevention


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 HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted infections - care, support and prevention - AIDS action

Practical information for health
workers, educators and community
carers on HIV, AIDS and sexually
transmitted infections covering care,
support and prevention.

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HIV testing: a practical approach  >  Resources 
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HIV testing: a practical approach

Why test for HIV?
Deciding which tests to use
Screening blood for transfusion
Implementing HIV testing for individuals
Screening for surveillance
Appendix 1
Appendix 2




HIV testing: a practical approach    42  Page 43  44  top of page




Testing strategies 

HIV testing methods
, (UNAIDS technical update, 1997), is a short summary of the main testing strategies and some practical responses to key challenges in developing countries. 
Available free in English, French and Spanish from UNAIDS or on UNAIDS' website (see Organisations).

The importance of simple/rapid assays in HIV testing, Weekly Epidemiological Record 1998, 73( 42): 321-326 describes the potential value of simple/rapid assays.
Available free from WHO (see Organisations). 

Operational characteristics of commercially available assays to detect antibodies to HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 in human sera, (1990-1999), are a series of detailed reports on all commercially available HIV tests evaluated by WHO/UNAIDS, with detailed information on their characteristics. The most recent report is number 11. 
Available free from WHO or UNAIDS (see Organisations).

UNAIDS/WHO revised recommendations for the selection and use of HIV antibody tests, Weekly Epidemiological Record 1997, 72 (12): 81-86 are the most recent recommendations on HIV testing strategies. 
Available free from WHO (see Organisations).

UNAIDS policy statement on HIV testing and counselling, (1997), covers the ethical issues related to HIV testing and counselling, and highlights the key issues that programmes should consider. 
Available free in English, French and Spanish from UNAIDS (see Organisations).

WHO guidelines for standard HIV isolation procedures, (1994), are practical guidelines for specimen collection, HIV isolation and testing for technicians working in diagnostic and research laboratories. New edition expected in 1999. 
Available from WHO (see Organisations).

Blood and laboratory safety

Blood programme development manual, (1998), looks at how to recruit and retain blood donors, management of blood donation programmes and how to establish a quality control system. Aimed at non-governmental organisations and government programmes. 
Available in English, French and Spanish for from International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (see Organisations). 

Blood safety and HIV; (UNAIDS technical update, 1997), summarises some of the key issues and responses for safe blood supply. 
Available in English and French from UNAIDS (see Organisations).

District laboratory practice in tropical countries, Part 1, (1998), is a simple summary for laboratories in developing countries, including information on how to manage laboratories and diagnostic tests. 
Available for £10.90 from Tropic Health Technology, 14 Bevills Close, Doddington, March PE15 OTT UK. 

Guidelines for blood donor counselling on human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV), (1997), explains how to integrate donor selection, risk assessment and HIV counselling into blood donor programmes, for programme planners and staff, 
Available for in English, French and Spanish from International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (see Organisations).

Guidelines for the organization of a blood transfusion service, (1992), WHO order no. 1150376, describes how to organise a national blood transfusion service in developing countries, including how to recruit blood donors, screen for transmissable diseases and purchase and organise equipment.
Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish for$22.50 (developing countries from WHO (see Organisations). 

Guidelines for quality assurance programmes for blood transfusion services, (1993), WHO order no. 1150392, describes how to monitor and supervise transfusion services in hospital blood banks and large transfusion centres. Includes guidelines on record-keeping, donor services, laboratories and testing. 
Available in Chinese, English, French and Spanish for $10.80 (developing countries from WHO (see Organisations).

Safe blood and blood products, (1993), WHO/GPA/CNB/93.2 A/B/C/O/E is a distance learning course (available in five manuals) containing guidelines for managing safe blood transfusion and donation. 
Available for$108 (developing countries from WHO (see Organisations).




HIV testing: a practical approach    43  Page 44  45  top of page



Infection control 

Practical guidelines for preventing infections transmitted by blood or air in health-care settings, (1997), provides guidelines for hospital, health centre and home-based carers on protecting themselves against HIV and TB. 
Available free to readers in developing countries and £5/US $10 elsewhere from Healthlink Worldwide (see Organisations).

Programme management 

HIV prevention and AIDS care in Africa: a district level approach (1998) is a useful manual for health planners at district level. It includes information on HIV testing and counselling services.
Available for Dutch Fl. 49 from KIT Press, PO Box 95001,1090 HA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: [email protected] 

Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, (1998), is the latest information on the global status of HIV and information on trends in the epidemic. This report is updated annually. 
Available free in English, French and Spanish from UNAIDS (see Organisations). 

Reaching regional consensus on improved behavioural and serosurveillance for HIV; (1998), is a report from a meeting in East Africa at which ethical and practical issues relating to HIV surveillance were discussed. 
Available free in English from UNAIDS (see Organisations).


Counselling for HIV/AIDS: a key to caring, (1995), WHO/GPA/TCA/HCS/95.15 provides suggestions for setting up HIV counselling services. It is aimed at policy-makers, planners and implementers of counselling activities. 
Available from WHO (see Organisations).

Filling the gaps: care and support for people with HIV/AIDS in Côte  d'Ivoire, (1995), describes how various NGOs are providing counselling, testing services and community-based health care.
Available for £3.25 in English and French from Teaching aids At Low Cost (TALC), PO Box 49, St Albans, Herts AL1 5TX, UK. E-mail: [email protected] 

Keys to counselling, AIDS Action 24, (1994), provides steps to thinking about counselling, especially pre-test counselling. 
Available free in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish from Healthlink Worldwide (see Organisations).

HIV testing and human rights 

AIDS, health and human rights: an explanatory manual, (1995), examines how human rights and public health workers can work together on HIV. 
Available for in English, French and Spanish from International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (see Organisations).

HIV testing and informed consent: guidelines for health care workers, (1995), is a useful poster-size leaflet for health workers describing what informed consent is and how health workers can obtain this. 
Available free from AIDS Law Project, Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Private Bag 3, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. E-mail: [email protected] 



Challenges in AIDS counselling, (1991), is a video, with training guide, that covers a range of issues involved in HIV/AIDS counselling, including how to break the news of HIV infection, establish a comfortable counselling environment, and discuss sensitive issues such as sex and death. It is filmed in Zambia. 
Available in English and French in VHS NTSC, PAL and SECAM format for us $79.95 from Development Through Self-Reliance, 9527 Good Lion Road, Columbia MD 21045, USA. E-mail: [email protected]  Also available in local currency from local distributors in Australia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Contact Development Through Self-Reliance for local distributors.

HIV/AIDS counselling: the TASO experience, (1998), is a 30 minute video illustrating TASO's approach to counselling. People talk about their fears and experiences since becoming aware that they are HIV positive. 
Available in English, French and Swahili in NTSC/PAL/SECAM formats for £30; £18 for charitable/educational organisations. Free copies available for organisations in sub-Saharan Africa from Teaching aids At Low Cost (TALC), P O Box 49, St Albans, Herts AL1 5TX, UK. E-mail: [email protected]




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